**keywords:** telescope optical design optics optician software freeware services source code excel visual basic applications java scripts applets cgi borland turbo pascal delphi kylix c++ builder visual basic vba c# php mysql dos windows linux susse apple redhat astronomy ray trace raytrace raytracing spot diagram aberration seidel third order spherical coma astigmatism distortion chromatism spherochromatism opd optical path diference encircled ensquared fft psf mtf otf optimization optimize global local merit function damped least square dlsq lsq tolerance layout telescope refractor objective doublet achromatic aplanatic cemented broken airspaced fraunhofer steinheil clark triplet christen glass schott hoya hikari ohara sumita corning gost lzos reflector mirror sphere ellipsoid prolate oblate paraboloid hyperboloid toroid mangin one mirror newtonian dob dobson dobsonian two mirror cassegrain gregorian ritchey-chretien dall-kirkham pressmann-camichel schwarzschild three mirror loveday picht catadioptric camera maksutov schmidt baker wright sigler gregory simak rumak relay wright lurie houghton loveday tct tilted brachyt shiefspiegler yolo off-axis stevick stevick-paul brunn kutter buchroeder herschel schupmann herrig focal corrector extender reducer flattener plate lens menisc meniscus barlow ross winn bird brixner eyepices huygenian abbe ramsden kellner erfle plössl ploessl könig koenig ortoscopic amateur astronomer telescope maker atm atm's modas jodas eodas sundi myoptics my optics ivan krastev oslo zemax sigma vob code v optix optalix lensview winlens asap synopsis raycad opticad optikwerks winlens winspot optec optica opticalc lensview atmos winspot dboptic opus autoray ados kdp roadrunner aberrator test startest grid terebizh ronchi mosby null inverse wire foucault knife edge milles-lacroix sinnott texerau book article magazine journal letters atmj atmlj sky & telescope skywatch amateurastronomy coelum applied optics josa sterne und weltraum starobserver

**glossary:** 1/2 1/3 1/4 96% a/d abbe abrasive achromat accumulate actual adaptation adu afocal aid air airy algorithm alignment alt-az altaz altazimuth alumina aluminim aluminium aluminizing alumosilicate amateur anastigmatic angle annealing anti-blooming aperture aplanatic apo apochromat apparent approach arc of contact arm array ascension aspheric assembly astigmatism astrophotography autoguider averted axe back barber barlow barrel belt bertele bfl binning bino binocular bioactive bird bit bk7 blast bond boring boron borosilicate brandon brightness brixner brush butt bvc camera cap code capacity carbide cass cassegrain casting catadioptric cbn ccd cell cemented centerless center-over-center centerline cerium cervit™ charget chatter chief chordal chromatic circles classes classic classical cleaning clear clock cmos cmyk coat coated collimation collodion color combine component compound conditioning confusion contrast converter coordinate correction corrector couder crayford criterion criterion cross crown current curvature curvature of dall dark data dawes ddp declination deconvolution deep depending depth dew diagonal dialsight difference diffraction digitaldilworth disk dispersion dissipation distortion dob dobson dobsonian doublet download drag & drop dressing drilling drive dust dusting dynamic ed effect efficiency efl emery encircled energy english ensquared entrance entropy equatorial erfle error exit expansion exposure eye eyepiece f.e.p.a. fast fastar fever fft field of figuring filter finder fine fine finish flat flattener flourite fluoride f-number focal focus focuser fork form foucault frame france free french friabilty full fully function furie fused silica gain galilean galoc garnet gaussian gaviola gem geometrical german ghost glass go-to goto grade gradient grain grains graphical g-ratio gregorian gregory grinder grinding grit guiding guiding heat helical hexapolar histogram hogging honeycomb honing hopping horseshoe houghton huygenian huygens hyperstar id images images imaging immersion incidance indes interference intermediate internal jig joint jones jumbo kalliscopic kellner kellner kernel kidney-bean koehler koenig könig lanthanum lap lapping lateral lead least length lens limit limited limiting line loading longitudinal low-reflection lpr lrgb lurie lv ma machine machining magnification magnifier magnitude mak making maksutov marginal mask mass masuyama maximum median meniskus meridional metal microfacet micron mirror mittenzwey modified modiulation monocentric monocentric monocular mosaic mosby mot mounting mtf multicoated nagler narrowband newton newtonian night noise nonwoven null number object objective oblique obstruction od off hand off-axis olishing on top one-shot open opera optical optics orthoscopic orthoscopic ota oxide panoptic parabolic paraboloid paraxial paries path pec pedestal periodic photosite piggyback pincushion pinion pitch pixel plane plate plossl plunge polar pole polishing powders power primary prime prism psf pupil pyrex® quantum quarter-wave quartz rack radian ramsden range ransfer ratio rayleigh rayleigh readout real rectilinea reducers reduction reflector reflex refractor refractorholism refractoritis reinforcing relief resolution resolution resolving response reticle rgb right rings ritchey-chretien roc roll room ross rouge rough rtv sagitta sagittal sampling scale scaling schiefspiegler schmidt schott schwarzschild scidmore scope scratch sct secondary seeing self-guiding semi separated setting sharpening sic sic sidereal sight silica silicon silvering singlet size sky sleek sma societies soda-lime spaced speed speers-waler spherical spherochromatism spider spot spread squares star steinheil stevick-paul strehl stroke structure subtract summing super superabrasives surface symmetrical system tangential tct telecompressor telescope telescope nut telextender telrad temperature test testing tex thermal thickness tilted tissue tn tolles tool on top tot total track transfer transformation transmission transparency trepanning triangular tri-color triplet trischiefspigler truss tube ultima ultra ultrascopic unguided unit unsharp vibration view viewer vision vulcanizing washing waterproof wavelength w-center w-edge wet wheel wide wignetting wild wipe w-normal work workshop w-stroke wynne yoke yolo zero zerodur® zirconia zirconium zoom

**Index:** abbe prisms, abbe sine condition, abbe v- number, aberrations, astigmatism and field curvature, balancing, chromatic, coma, correction of, distortion, lens shape and stop position effect on, measurement of, optical computations for, optical path difference, point spread functions for, and ray intercept curves, residual, seidel, spherical, third-order, tolerances for, variation with aperture and field, zonal absorption, absorption filters, acceptance cones, accommodation, achromatic doublets, achromatic prisms, achromatic singlets, achromatic telescope objectives, design forms, thin-lens theory for, additive tolerances, aerial image modulation (aim) curves, afocal attachments, afocal systems, airspaced achromats, airspaced anastigmats, airspaced triplets, airy disks, alignment telescopes, alternate lenses in zoom systems, amici objective, amici prisms, anamorphic systems, angles, of diffraction, of incidence, of prisms, of refraction, subtended, angstroms, angular aberrations, angular blur, angular depth of focus, angular dispersion, angular field of view, angular motion detection, angular resolution limits, angulon design, aniseikonina, antireflection coatings, apertures, aberration effects of, diffraction effects of, in galilean telescopes, and image illumination, in meniscus anastigmats, in meniscus camera lens, and optical invariant, apertures (cont.), and pupils, and sagittal coma, and vignetting, aplanatic optical systems, aplanatic surfaces and fronts, apochromatic lenses, doublets, triplets, apodization, apparent angular field of view, apparent thickness, apparent width, aqueous humor, arc-lamp motion picture projectors, aspheric correctors, aspheric surfaces, fabricating, general and skew rays on, in meniscus camera lens, plastic for, for residual aberrations, in third-order aberrations, astigmatism, computations for, in cooke triplets, in eyes, and field angle, manual correction of, in plane parallel plates, with point spread functions, in reflecting systems, astronomical telescopes, athermalization, autocollimating microscopes, automatic computer design, aviar lenses, axial gradients, back focal length, calculation of, and optical invariant, of two-component systems, in zoom systems, baffles, baker-nunn satellite tracking cameras, balsam cement, bandpass filters, bang-bang zooms, bar targets, barium crowns and flints, barrel distortion, beaded screens, beam power, beam splitter prisms, beam truncation, beam waists, bell centering, bench collimators, binary surfaces, binocular field of vision, binocular vision, lack of, binoculars, biocular systems, iotar objectives, blackbody radiation, blanks, blind spot, blocking, blue optical glass filters, blur and blur sizes, with mangin mirrors, rapid estimation of, in reflecting systems, with spherical aberrations, borosilicate glasses, bouwers system, brashear-hastings prisms, brass gages, bravais system, brewster’s angle, brightness, conservation of, telescope, units for, in visual acuity, broad-band coating, broken ring test, canada balsam, cancellation of waves, candle power of searchlights, candles, cardinal points, cassegrain systems, benefits of, conic sections in, focal length in, schmidt, catadioptric systems, cataracts, cauchy dispersion equation, cemented doublets, cemented quadruplets, cemented triplets, cements, center-of-curvature tests, centering, central negative doublets, central obscuration, chief rays, chromatic aberrations, in blur, in bouwers system, computations for, in condenser systems, in cooke triplets, in eye, in eyepieces, in lens design, manual correction of, in plane parallel plates, in prisms, rayleigh limit in, residuals in, in schmidt systems, in symmetrical principle, in telescope objectives, in visual acuity, chromatic difference of magnification, circular polarizers, cladding in fiber optics, closing equations, coatings, coddington’s equations, coherent illumination, mtf with, cold mirrors, cold stops, collimators, color in cooke triplets, color temperature in blackbody radiation, coma aberration, computations for, in cooke triplets, in diffractive surface design, in eyepieces, and field angle, and lens shape, with mangin mirrors, manual correction of, in plane parallel plates, with point spread functions, rayleigh limit in, in reflecting systems, in symmetrical principle, in telescope objectives, communications, fiber optics for, comparison photometry, compensating eyepieces, compound microscopes, computer-controlled polishers, computer design, concave lenses, wave fronts affected by, concave radius, in microscope objectives, in unknown optics analysis, concentric bouwers, condenser systems, cone channel condensers, cones, conic sections, conjugates, conrady dispersion equation, conservation of radiance, constant-deviation prisms, contact lenses, contrast sensitivity, contrast transfer function, convergence, convex lenses, wave fronts affected by, convex radius in microscope objectives, cooke triplet anastigmats, element shape solutions in, glass choice in, with high-index crowns, initial aberration values in, power and spacing solutions in, cooling process, corneas, cosine-to-the-fourth, cover glass in microscopes, critical angle in prisms, crown glasses, in cooke triplets, in meniscus anastigmats, in meniscus camera lenses, in petzval lenses, in telescope objectives, crystalline materials, cup centering, curvature, coddington’s equations for, computations for, in meniscus camera lenses, in paraxial raytracing, petzval (see petzval curvature) in thin lenses, curves in design, cutoff frequencies, cylinder lenses, cylindrical surfaces, dagors, dall-kirkham system, damped least squares, dark adaptation, data transmission, fiber optics for, defects, eye, density, of optical glass, in transmission calculations, depolarizers, depth of field, depth of focus, derotation prisms, detector optics, deviation, in centering, in prisms, dialyte achromats, diamond turning, dichroics, dielectric reflection, diffraction, of apertures, of gaussian beams, diffraction efficiency, diffraction grating, diffraction-limited systems, diffractive surfaces, achromatic diffractive singlets, apochromatic diffractive doublets, diffraction efficiency in, manufacturability of, sweatt model for, diffuse sources, irradiance from, diffusing materials, dimensions for prisms, diopter adjustments, diopter gages, diopters, direct vision prisms, direction cosines, dispersing prisms, dispersion, in fiber optics, in prisms, relative, distances, eye judgment of, with microscopes, rangefinders for, distortion, computations for, in cooke triplets, distortion (cont.), in eyepieces, keystone, in lens design, manual correction of, measurement of, in symmetrical principle, dogmar anastigmats, double-gauss designs, anastigmats, camera lens, high-index crowns, high-speed lenses, split-rear crowns, doublet magnifiers, doublet telescope objectives, dove prisms, dutch telescopes, effective clear aperture, effective focal length (efl), calculation of, and optical invariant, in zoom systems, electromagnetic spectrum, electronic computer design, element shape solutions, ellipsoidal mirrors, in arc-lamp motion picture projectors, manufacturing, for reflecting systems, emissivity, empty magnification, endoscopes, enlarger lenses, entrance pupils, entrance windows, equiconcave and equiconvex elements, equivalent air paths, equivalent air thickness, erecting prism systems, erecting telescopes, erfle eyepieces, exit pupils, in magnifiers, in optical devices, in telescopes, exit windows, express lenses, extended objects, eye relief, eyelenses, in microscopes, in telescopes, eyepieces (see telescope systems and eyepieces) eyes, defects of, in optical design, sensitivity of, structure of, visual acuity of, f-numbers, f-theta laser scanning lenses, farsightedness, fasteners, fiber optics, for communications, gradient, field, aberration variation with, field coverage, field curvature, coddington’s equations for, computations for, in meniscus camera lenses, field flatteners, field lenses, light pipes for, in radiometers, field of view, in field lenses, in galilean telescopes, field of vision, field stops, fifth-order aberrations, filters, absorption, interference, photographic density of, spatial, thin-film coatings, first-surface mirrors, fish-eye lenses, fitting operations, flashed opal, flat-field microscope objectives, flint glasses, in cooke triplets, in meniscus anastigmats, in petzval lenses, in telescope objectives, float glass, focal collimators, focal lengths, in anamorphic systems, in cassegrain mirror systems, focal lengths (cont.), coddington’s equations for, in compound microscopes, measurement of, and optical invariant, in reflecting systems, in telescopes, of thin lenses, in two-component systems, in zoom systems, focal points, in image formation, in telescopes, focus, in anamorphic systems, depth of, of eyepieces, in optical path difference, in zoom systems, foot-lamberts, foucault test, fourier transform lenses, fovea, fraunhofer form, frequency, frequency distribution curves, frequency response in mtf, fresnel lenses, plastics for, in rangefinders, fresnel reflection, fresnel surfaces, front focal length (ffl), front focus distance (ffd), front meniscus camera lenses, fused fibers, fused quartz glass, g-sums, gain of projection screens, galilean telescopes, in anamorphic systems, aperture stops in, field of view in, gamma radiation, gastroscopes,
gauss form, in lens design, in telescope objectives, gaussian beams, diffraction of, gaussian optics, gelatin filters, general and skew ray computations, aspheric surfaces, spherical surfaces, generalized design technique, aberration balancing in, manual correction in, residual reduction in, trigonometric correction in, generating process, geneva lens gages, geometric image energy distribution, geometric spot size, geometrical modulation transfer factor, germanium ir design, glare stops, glass fibers, glass filters, glass molding, glasses (see optical glass) goerz dagors, goerz prisms, gradient index fibers, gradient index glasses, graphical raytracing, gray-bodies, green optical glass filters, gregorian telescopic system, grin rods, grinding, half-field angles in radiometers, hartmann dispersion equation, heat-absorbing glasses, height, for objects at infinity, in raytracing, hektor anastigmats, heliar anastigmats, hemispheres, radiation into, herzberger dispersion equation, high-power microscope objectives, high-speed processing, higher-efficiency coating, higher-order aberrations, hot mirrors, huygenian eyepieces, huygen’s principle, hyperboloids, hyperfocal distance, hypergon lenses, hyperopia, illumination, and apertures, of natural sources, illumination (cont.), in photometry, units for,
in visual acuity, illumination devices, integrating spheres, light pipes in, projection condensers, searchlights, telescope brightness, image evaluation, geometric spot size, image energy distribution,
modulation transfer function, computation of, diffraction-limited systems, optical path difference, point spread functions for, radial energy distribution, spread functions for, tolerances in, image formation, cardinal points in, focal points and principal points in, light ray refraction in, matrix optics in, mirrors in, optical invariant in, paraxial raytracing in, paraxial region in, position in, scheimpflug condition in, separated component systems in, sign conventions in, size in, thin lenses in, y-ybar diagrams in, image height, objects at infinity, in paraxial raytracing, images, evaluating (see image evaluation) forming (see image formation) illumination of, orientation of, in prism systems, radiometry of, immersion lenses, immersion objectives, index dispersion, index-slope angle products, indexes, of eye surfaces, of lenses in paraxial raytracing, indexes (cont.), of prisms, of refraction, and dispersion, importance of, for mirrored surfaces, test for, infinite conjugates, infinity, height for objects at, infinity f-numbers, infrared region, infrared transmitting glasses, instrument myopia, integrating spheres, intensity, in photometry, in radiometry, intercept length for mirrored surfaces, interference, interference coatings, interference filters, interferometers, internal transmittance, intersection coordinates for skew rays, inverse dall-kirkham system, inverse square law, inversion prisms, inverting telescopes, ir cooke triplet, ir telescope, iris, irradiance, from diffuse sources, in photometry, in radiometry, iterative technique, johnson’s law, k-mirrors, kellner eyepieces, kepler telescopes, keratoconus, kettler-drude dispersion equation, keystone distortion, kinematic mounts, kinoforms, knife-edge scans, knife-edge test, knife-edge traces, knoop hardness, koehler projection condensers, koenig prisms, lagrange invariant, lambertian diffusers, lamberts, lambert’s law, landolt broken ring test, laser ablation, laser beam diffraction, laser beam expanders, laser diodes, laser disk objectives, laser rangefinders, lasik, lateral aberrations, lateral magnification, law of refraction, laws of probability, leman prisms, lens bench collimators, lens benches, lens shape effect on aberrations, lenses, designs for, automatic, sample, mounts for, power of, in unknown optics analysis, wave fronts affected by, lenticular screens, licht-sprechers, light pipes, light wave propagation, line images, line spread functions, linear aberrations, linear blur, linear dimensions in computations, linear kinoform surfaces, linear resolution, liquids, long-pass transmission filters, longitudinal departure, longitudinal magnification, longitudinal spherical aberrations, lord rayleigh’s criterion, low-expansion glasses, low-index, broadband cooke triplets, low-index glass, low-power microscope objectives, low-reflection coatings, lumens, luminous radiation, lyot stops, index magnetorheologic polishing, magnification, in anamorphic systems, in microscopes, in telescopes, magnifiers,, maksutov system, mangin mirrors, manual aberration correction, marechal criterion, materials, in design, in optical manufacture, specifications and tolerances for, matrix optics, measurements, aberration, focal length, modulation transfer function, telescopic power, medium-power microscope objectives, melt fits, meniscus forms,
camera lens, in design, focal points in, inner crown, for photographic objectives, in residual aberrations, meridional rays and planes, merit function, merte effect, merte surfaces, mesopic curve, micrometers, microns, microscopes and microscope objectives, aplanatic surfaces in, autocollimating, compound, flat-field, high-power, low-power, medium-power, rayleigh limit in, reflecting, simple, millimicrons, minifiers, minimum deviation of prisms, mirrors, ellipsoidal, in image formation, mangin, mounting, plane, semireflecting, spherical, modified amici prisms, modulation transfer function (mtf),
with coherent and semi-coherent illumination, computation of, diffraction-limited systems in, measurement of, motion, magnification of, mounting techniques, multilayer coatings, myopia, nanometers, narrow bandpass filters, natural stop positions, nearsightedness, negative magnification, negative outer meniscus elements, newton’s black spot, newton’s rings, nicol prisms, night myopia, nodal points, nodal slides, nonbrowning glasses, nonspherical surfaces, null lenses, numerical aperture (na), in fiber optics, in illumination for mtf, objective lenses and systems, in microscopes, photographic (see photographic objectives) in telescopes, testing, offense against sine condition (osc), oil-immersion microscopes, old schott dispersion equation, diopter prisms, opal glass, opening equations, optic nerve, optical axes, optical coatings, optical computations, aberration, coddington’s equations, general and skew rays, aspheric surfaces, spherical surfaces, meridional rays, paraxial rays, optical contact method, optical devices, anamorphic systems, compound microscopes, diffractive surfaces, exit pupils, eyes, and resolution in, fiber optics, field lenses and relay systems, radiometers and detector optics, rangefinders, simple microscopes and magnifiers, telescopes, variable-power systems, optical glass, in cooke triplets, gradient index, infrared transmitting, low-expansion, in meniscus anastigmats, in meniscus camera lenses, in petzval lenses, in telescope objectives, optical invariant, optical laboratory practice, aberration measurement, focal length measurement, foucault test, lens benches, modulation transfer function measurement, resolution tests, schlieren test, star test, telescopic power measurement, unknown optics analysis, optical manufacture, blocking, centering, grinding, optical manufacture (cont.), high-speed processing,
materials, nonspherical surfaces, polishing, rough shaping, single-point diamond turning, optical mounting techniques, optical path difference (opd), for aberration measurements, computations for, focus shift in, in ray intercept plots, rms, spherical aberration in, optical path length, optical specifications and tolerances, additive, centering, materials, prism dimensions and angles, surface accuracy, surface quality, thickness, optical systems, resolution of, optical systems design, achromatic telescope objectives, cooke triplet anastigmats, diffractive surfaces, by electronic computer, generalized design technique, practical considerations in, simple meniscus camera lens, symmetrical principle in, optical transfer function (otf), orders of aberrations, orientation in prism systems, orthometar lenses, orthoscopic eyepieces, osc aberration computations, overcorrected astigmatism, overcorrected distortion, overcorrected spherical aberration, overspecification, paraboloidal mirrors, blur size estimation in, manufacturing, in reflecting systems, paraxial rays, computations for, for mirrored surfaces, through several surfaces, in third-order aberrations, paraxial region, path length in fiber optics, pattern-generating surfaces, peak-to-valley (p-v) opd, peaking-up characteristics, pechan prisms, pellicles, penta prisms, pentac anastigmats, perfect optical systems, periscopes, petzval curvature, in cooke triplets, in eyepieces, manual correction of, in meniscus camera lens, petzval lenses, for photographic objectives, with split elements, petzval sum, petzval surfaces, phase shifts, phase transfer function (ptf), photoelectric effect, photographic density of filters, photographic depth of focus, photographic objectives, afocal attachments, airspaced anastigmats, meniscus anastigmats,
petzval lenses, reverse telephoto lenses, telephoto lenses, photographic triplet lens, photometry, photopic curve, pincushion distortion, pipes, light, pitch in blocking, planck’s law, plane mirrors, plane parallel plates, plane surface reflections, plane waves, plasmat lenses, plastic cements, plastic fibers, plastic optical materials, plate glass, ploessl eyepieces, point spread functions (psfs), polarizing materials, polishing, porro prisms, portrait lenses, position in image formation, power, in anamorphic systems, in cooke triplet anastigmats, in design, of field lenses, of lenses, of microscopes, radiated into hemispheres, of searchlights, in telescopes, of two-component systems, precision bevels, precision in computations, presbyopia, pressing, primary aberrations, manual correction of, point spread functions for, principal planes, principal points, principal rays, prisms, achromatic and direct vision, in anamorphic systems, designing, dimensions and angles for, diopter, dispersing, erecting systems for, in eyepieces, inversion, minimum deviation of, mounting, penta, plane parallel plates in,
polarizing, in rangefinders, reflection from plane surfaces in, rhomboids and beam splitters, right-angle, roof, thin, total internal reflection in, wave fronts affected by, prk technique, projection condensers, projection screens, projection tv objectives, protars, protected glasses, pulfrich refractometers, pupils, and aperture stop, eye, in magnifiers, in optical devices, in telescopes, zones of, purkinje shift, purple optical glass filters, r-biotars, radial energy distribution, radial gradients, radial keratotomy, radial test targets, radiant intensity, radiation, blackbody, glasses for, into hemispheres, reducing, radiometers, radiometry and radiance, blackbody radiation, conservation of, and diffuse sources, and hemispheres, of images, inverse square law for, and lambert’s law, spectral, radius in unknown optics analysis, ramsden eyepieces, rangefinders, rapid estimation of blur size, rare earth glasses, ray heights in raytracing, ray refraction at single surface, ray slope-index product, rayleigh limit (rl), rayleigh’s criterion, rays, intercept curves for, through lenses, meridional, paraxial raytracing, in aberration measurements, computer effects on, graphical, in optical computations, through several surfaces, for spot diagrams, real angular field of view, real images, rear meniscus camera lens, rear projection screens, reciprocal relative dispersion, red optical glass filters, reduction of residual aberrations, reflectance levels of natural sources, reflecting microscope objectives, reflecting systems, bouwers system, conic sections through origins in, ellipsoid and hyperboloid, mangin mirrors, paraboloidal reflectors in, schmidt system, spherical mirrors in, reflection, dielectric, in fiber optics, with immersion lenses, in prisms, reflectors, refracting prisms, refraction, equations for, law of, at single surface, for skew rays, regions of solution, reinforced waves, relative apertures, relative dispersion, relay systems, replication, plastics for, residual aberrations, resistance of optical glass, resolution, of compound microscopes, in diffraction-limited systems, of eyes, in fiber optics, in modulation transfer function, in optical devices, resolution (cont.), of optical systems, tests for, reticles, retina, retrofocus lenses, reverse telephoto lenses, reversed tessars, rhomboid prisms, right-angle prisms, ritchey-chretien objective, rms (root-mean square) opd, rod-lens endoscopes, rods, ronchi grating tests, roof prisms, rough shaping, sagittal coma, sagittal curvature of field, sagittal height, scaling of aberrations, scheimpflug condition, schlieren test, schmidt cameras, schmidt prisms, schmidt systems, blur size estimation in, cassegrains, in reflecting systems, schwarzchild configuration, scotopic curve, scratch and dig specifications, searchlights, second-surface mirrors, secondary spectrum (ss), in achromatic telescope objectives, in diffractive surface design, seidel aberrations, seidel coefficients, selfoc rods, sellmeier dispersion equation, semi-coherent illumination, mtf with, semireflecting mirrors, sensitivity of eyes, separated component systems, seventh-order aberrations, sheet polarizers, short-pass transmission filters, sigmoidoscopes, sign conventions, for mirrored surfaces, for telescopes, simple lenses, blur size estimation in, meniscus camera, wave fronts affected by, simple microscopes, simultaneous design techniques, sine wave response, sine-wave targets in mtf, single-lens elements, blur size estimation in, single-lens reflex (slr) cameras, single-material catadioptric systems, single-point diamond turning, single refracting elements, blur size estimation in, single surface, ray refraction at, singlet correctors, size in image formation, skew rays, aspheric surface computations, spherical surface computations, slits in mtf tests, slope angles in paraxial raytracing, snell’s law of refraction, sonnar anastigmats, spacing, in cooke triplet anastigmats,
in design, in microscope objectives, in telescopes, in unknown optics analysis, sparrow’s criterion, spatial filtering, special glasses, gradient index, infrared transmitting, low-expansion, spectral radiometry, speed of systems, spheres, integrating, spherical aberration, in anastigmats, in blur, computations for, in condenser systems, in cooke triplets, in diffraction-limited systems, in diffractive surface design, in eyepieces, fifth-order, geometric spot size due to, and lens shape, manual correction of, in meniscus camera lens, spherical aberration (cont.), in optical path difference, in petzval lenses, in plane parallel plates, in point spread functions, rayleigh limit in, in reflecting systems, in telescope objectives, third-order, wave aberration polynomial for, spherical gradients, spherical mirrors, spherical reflectors, spherical surfaces, general and skew rays on, spherical test plates, spherochromatism, computations for, in diffractive surface design, in residual aberrations, in telescope objectives, spherometers, spike filters, spinning shoulders, split elements, split-front triplets, split-image rangefinders, split-rear crown double gauss, spot diagrams, spot size due to spherical aberration, spread functions, spreading of gaussian beams, sprenger prisms, spurious resolution, square-wave targets in mtf, star test, statistical combination, stefan-boltzmann law, steinheil form, steradians, stereo vision, stokes lenses, stop shift equations, stops (see apertures) stray radiation, strehl definition, strehl ratio,, styrene plastic, subtended angles, superachromat lenses, surface curvature in eye, surfaces, diffractive, specifications and tolerances for, in third-order aberration computations, surveying instruments, sweatt model, symmetrical eyepieces, symmetrical principle, synthesis of optical systems (see optical systems design) systems of separated components,
t-stops, tangential coma, tangential curvature of field, tangential images, tangential rays and planes, targets in mtf, telecentric stops, telephoto lenses, telephoto ratio, telescope systems and eyepieces, brightness in, diopter adjustment of, erector systems, erfle eyepieces, huygenian eyepieces, kellner eyepieces, magnification, magnifiers, objective systems in, orthoscopic eyepieces, power measurements, ramsden eyepieces, rayleigh limit in, symmetrical eyepieces, temperature, in blackbody radiation, and telescope objectives, terrestrial telescopes, tessar anastigmats, test plates, theodolites, thick lenses, in cooke triplets, in design, thickness, apparent, of filters, magnification of, thickness (cont.), in paraxial raytracing, in unknown optics analysis, thickness fits, thin elements, thin-edged elements, thin-film computations, thin lenses, aberration expressions, blur size estimation in, in image formation, stop shift equations, for telescope objectives, thin prisms, third-order aberrations, in cooke triplets, in diffraction-limited systems, in geometric spot size, in meniscus camera lenses, rayleigh limit in, in reflecting systems, in residual aberrations, surface contribution in, thin lenses, third-order theory, mm camera objectives, three-dimensional vision, three-hole masks, topogon lens, toroids, total curvature of thin lenses, total emissivity, total internal reflection (tir), transfer equations, transformation temperature in glass, transmission, calculations for, in radiance of images, transmitting diffusers, transverse aberrations, transverse magnification, triangulation rangefinders, trigonometric correction, trigonometric functions, triplet achromats, triplets, with aspheric field correctors, cooke (see cooke triplet anastigmats) truncation, beam, tunnel diagrams, twisting in lens mounting, two-component systems, ultraviolet region, undercorrected astigmatism, undercorrected spherical aberrations, underspecification, unfolding prisms, unknown optics analysis, usaf resolution test target, v-number,, variable-power systems, velocity of propagation, vernier acuity, vertex length, viewer lenses, vignetting, virtual images, visible spectrum, visual acuity, visual centering, visual resolution of microscopes, vitreous humor, waists, warping in lens mounting, watts, wave aberration polynomial, wave fronts, aberration, simple lens and prism affects on, wavelength, in blackbody radiation, and dispersion, and emissivity, and eye sensitivity, in fiber optics, in radiometry, wide-angle design, wide-angle lenses, wide-angle photography, widely airspaced doublets, wien’s displacement law, wind-tunnel applications, window glass, wood lenses, working f-numbers, wratten ilters, y-ybar diagrams, ynu raytraces, young’s experiment, zeiss protars, zero-power meniscus elements, zonal aberrations, in anastigmats, computations for, in diffractive surface design, with point spread functions, rayleigh limit in, zonal aberrations (cont.), in residual aberrations, in telescope objectives, zones of pupils, zoom systems

**bibliography:** ernst karl abbe george adams george biddell airy alhazen robert day allen giovanni battista amici anders jöns angström dominique-francois-jean arago jacques babinet roger bacon henry baker james gilbert baker daniel barbaro friedrich johann karl becke max berek jean-baptiste biot alexandre edmond becquerel john billings niels bohr giovanni borelli savile bradbury james bradley william henry bragg tycho brahe john brashear david brewster louis de broglie georges de buffon robert wilhelm bunsen girolamo cardano laurent cassegrain claude chappe pavel alekseyevich cherenkov alvan clark christopher cock nicolaus copernicus marie alfred cornu henri chretien siegfried czapski louis-jacques-mande daguerre leonardo da vinci rene descartes leonard digges john dollond peter dollond christian doppler cornelius drebbel george eastman thomas alva edison albert einstein charles wesley elmer euclid leonhard euler michael faraday pierre de fermat henri fitz armand fizeau jean-bernard-leon foucault jean-baptiste-joseph fourier benjamin franklin joseph von fraunhofer augustin-jean fresnel dennis gabor galileo galilei james gregory robert grosseteste john hadley chester moore hall edmund halley william rowan hamilton james hargreaves edmund hartnack john frederick william herschel william herschel heinrich rudolph hertz james hillier john henry hindle robert hooke christiaan huygens shinya inoue alexander jablonski zacharias janssen michael kasha carl kellner john kerr johannes kepler gustav robert kirchhoff august köhler anton kutter edwin herbert land antonie van leeuwenhoek arthur leonard philipp eduard anton lenard johann nathanael lieberkühn hans lippershey joseph jackson lister albertus magnus dmitri dmitrievich maksutov theodore harold maiman marcello malpighi etienne-louis malus etienne-jules marey benjamin martin james clerk maxwell walter mccrone jacob metius albert michelson robert andrews millikan marvin lee minsky erwin müller isaac newton joseph nicephore niepce paul gottlieb nipkow friedrich adolf nobert georges nomarski maurice paul richard scott perkin max planck georg simon plössl maksymilian pluta johan sebastiaan ploem ignazio porro russell porter hugh powell claudius ptolemy john thomas quekett chandrasekhar venkata raman jesse ramsden lord rayleigh johann wilhelm ritter george willis ritchey moritz von rohr ole christensen roemer jean-baptiste rome de l'isle william parsons rosse warren de la rue ernst ruska ernest rutherford angelo sala christoph scheiner bernhard schmid otto schott erwin schrödinger james short henri hureau de senarmont willebrord snell george gabriel stokes jan jacbz swammerdam joseph swan william fox talbot samuel tolansky john tyndall gregorio weber charles wheatstone witelo of silesia william hyde wollaston joseph janvier woodward thomas young carl zeiss frits zernike richard adolph zsigmondy nicolas zucchi

**atm:** rtmc riverside telescope maker's conference stellafane springfield vermont ivan krastev massimo riccardi nils olof carlin john dobson mel bartels stephen tonkin jean texereau adrien millies-lacroix martin tritelwitz richard berry tom waineo cor berrevoets bob lombardi bob may michael lindner jim burrows tom krajci harrie rutten martin van venrooy jan van gastel stathis kafalis guntram lampert mike lockwood peter smith rick scott don clement ukyo chen arjan marvelde aki lötjönen richard ozer vladimir galogaza ken hunter vladimir sacek mark holm michael peck roger ceragioli jim fly dall keller david lewis dawide rowe tomas maruska harold suiter peter abrahams william cook dick suiter david stevick erwin herrig jose sasian heino wolter michael brunn al paslow

**software, freeware:** abcd aberrator ados apart apex apilux asap atmos atmosfringe beam ii iii iv bpm catch code v cyber ray dboptic decad diffract durango enterprise essential macleod film wizard filmstar fred freebmp fresnel fringe gaussopt_ik glad gsolver hohner optic kdp laserwerks lasscad lensforge lensview lightmachinery lightpipes lighttools looking glass lumerical madmax modas multilayer odyssey olive olympios optalix optec optenso opti optica opticad optical base optics lab optics one optikos optikwerks optilayer optis-works optiwave opus oslo paraxia vp pc grate photonics photopia plop radiant raytrace reflectorcad ronchi scatlab scisoft snell solexis solstis speos synopsis tfcalc trace trace tracepro vob winlase winlens zebase zemax registax

**periodicals:** photonics spectra design news europhotonics fiber optics online laser focus world lasers and optronics lightwave photonics online photonics spectra oe reports oe magazine optics.org sci.optics osa apoma aspe nes/osa spie dgao eos nist bipm bsi din iso ansi cie corm iesna oeosc s & t sky & telescopes sky and telescope sky to night astronomy atmlj amateur astronomy atmlj atm letters journal josa applied optics

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**sundials:** sundi dial sundial cadran astrolabe software freeware applet download design plan calculate calculation gnomon nodus style sun solar sunrise sunset moon phase south north coordinates cartesian system distance au position center terms celestial principal plane meridian parallel equator altitude azimuth zenith declination right ascension elevation mean true geometric trigonometry apparent anomaly eccentricity obliquity equator pole ecliptic parallax nutation vector radius orbit astronomical geographical geocentric orthographic horizon horizontal vertical polar declining inclining cylindrical garden stone brass paper equatorial polar west east north south calendar almanac clock angle radian arc grade degree arc-minutes arc-seconds pi hour minute second line date julian gregorian easter day latitude longitude equation time zone sideral universal ephemeris greenwich term armillary analemma analemmatic phenomena solstice equinox shadows magazine journal book picture amateur maker builder designer engraving sculptures stainless steel stone associaation meeus daffet smith sundi ivan krastev british sundial society nass north american sundial society sonnenuhr babylonische italische sonne jahr mez woz zeit uhr wahre ortszeit mitteleuropäische mittagslinie zeitzone kurve bifilare deklination siderale zeit äquatorialsonnenuhr analemmatische skaphe armillarsphären deklinationslinien gnomonik astronomie sonne sonnenstand slanchev chasovnik

**Books:**
1. Electron and Ion Microscopy and Microanalysis: Principles and Applications, Lawrence E. Murr
2. Acousto-Optic Signal Processing: Theory and Implementation, edited by Norman J. Berg and John N. Lee
3. Electro-Optic and Acousto-Optic Scanning and Deflection, Milton Gottlieb, Clive L. M. Ireland, and John Martin Ley
4. Single-Mode Fiber Optics: Principles and Applications, Luc B. Jeun-homme
5. Pulse Code Formats for Fiber Optical Data Communication: Basic Principles and Applications, David J. Morris
6. Optical Materials: An Introduction to Selection and Application, Sol-omon Musikant
7. Infrared Methods for Gaseous Measurements: Theory and Practice, edited by Joda Wormhoudt
8. Laser Beam Scanning: Opto-Mechanical Devices, Systems, and Data Storage Optics, edited by Gerald F. Marshall
9. Opto-Mechanical Systems Design, Paul R. Yoder, Jr.
10. Optical Fiber Splices and Connectors: Theory and Methods, Calvin M. Miller with Stephen C. Mettler and Ian A. White
11. Laser Spectroscopy and Its Applications, edited by Leon J. Rad-ziemski, Richard W. Solarz, and Jeffrey A. Paisner
12. Infrared Optoelectronics: Devices and Applications, William Nunley and J. Scott Bechtel
13. Integrated Optical Circuits and Components: Design and Applications, edited by Lynn D. Hufcheson
14. Handbook of Molecular Lasers, edited by Peter K. Cheo 15. Handbook of Optical Fibers and Cables, Hiroshi Murata
16. Acousto-Optics, Adrian Korpel
17. Procedures in Applied Optics, John Strong
18. Handbook of Solid-state Lasers, edited by Peter K. Cheo
19. Optical Computing: Digital and Symbolic, edited by Raymond Arra-thoon
20. Laser Applications in Physical Chemistry, edited by D. K. Evans
21. Laser-Induced Plasmas and Applications, edited by Leon J. Rad-ziemski and David A. Cremers Infrared Technology Fundamentals, Irving J. Spiro and Monroe Schlessinger
23. Single-Mode Fiber Optics: Principles and Applications, Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, Luc B. Jeunhomme
24. Image Analysis Applications, edited by Rangachar Kasturi and Mohan M. Trivedi
25. Photoconductivity: Art, Science, and Technology, N. V. Joshi
26. Principles of Optical Circuit Engineering, Mark A. Mentzer
27. Lens Design, Milton Laikin
28. Optical Components, Systems, and Measurement Techniques, Rajpal S. Sirohi and M. P. Kothiyal
29. Electron and Ion Microscopy and Microanalysis: Principles and Applications, Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, Lawrence E. Murr
30. Handbook of Infrared Optical Materials, edited by Paul Klocek
31. Optical Scanning, edited by Gerald F. Marshall
32. Polymers for Lightwave and Integrated Optics: Technology and Applications, edited by Lawrence A. Hornak
33. Electro-Optical Displays, edited by Mohammad A. Karim
34. Mathematical Morphology in Image Processing, edited by Edward R. Dougherty
35. Opto-Mechanical Systems Design: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, Paul R. Yoder, Jr.
36. Polarized Light: Fundamentals and Applications, Edward Colletf
37. Rare Earth Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers, edited by Michel J. F. Digonnet
38. Speckle Metrology, edited by Rajpal S. Sirohi
39. Organic Photoreceptors for Imaging Systems, Paul M. Borsenberger and David S. Weiss
40. Photonic Switching and Interconnects, edited by Abdellatif Marrakchi
41. Design and Fabrication of Acousto-Optic Devices, edited by Akis P. Goutzoulis and Dennis R. Pape
42. Digital Image Processing Methods, edited by Edward R. Dougherty
43. Visual Science and Engineering: Models and Applications, edited by D. H. Kelly
44. Handbook of Lens Design, Daniel Malacara and Zacarias Malacara
45. Photonic Devices and Systems, edited by Robert G. Hunsperger
46. Infrared Technology Fundamentals: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, edited by Monroe Schlessinger
47. Spatial Light Modulator Technology: Materials, Devices, and Applications, edited by Uzi Efron
48. Lens Design: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, Milton Laikin
49. Thin Films for Optical Systems, edited by FranGois R. Flory
50. Tunable Laser Applications, edited by F. J. Duarte
51. Acousto-Optic Signal Processing: Theory and Implementation, Second Edition, edited by Norman J. Berg and John M. Pellegrino
52. Handbook of Nonlinear Optics, Richard L. Sutherland
53. Handbook of Optical Fibers and Cables: Second Edition, Hirosh Murata Optical Storage and Retrieval: Memory, Neural Networks, and Fractals, edited by Francis T. S. Yu and Suganda Jutamulia
55. Devices for Optoelectronics, Wallace B. Leigh
56. Practical Design and Production of Optical Thin Films, Ronald R. Wille y
57. Acousto-Optics: Second Edition, Adrian Korpel
58. Diffraction Gratings and Applications, Erwin G. Loewen and Evgeny Popov
59. Organic Photoreceptors for Xerography, Paul M. Borsenberger and David S. Weiss
60. Characterization Techniques and Tabulations for Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials, edited by Mark Kuzyk and Carl Dirk
61. lnterferogram Analysis for Optical Testing, Daniel Malacara, Manuel Servin, and Zacarias Malacara
62. Computational Modeling of Vision: The Role of Combination, William R. Uttal, Ramakrishna Kakarala, Sriram Dayanand, Thomas Shepherd Jagadeesh Kalki, Charles F. Lunskis, Jr., and Ning Liu
63. Microoptics Technology: Fabrication and Applications of Lens Arrays and Devices, Nicholas F. Borrelli
64. Visual Information Representation, Communication, and Image Processing, Chang Wen Chen and Ya-Qin Zhang
65. Optical Methods of Measurement: W holefield Techniques, Rajpal S. Sirohi and Fook Siong Chau
66. Integrated Optical Circuits and Components: Design and Applications, edited by Edmond J. Murphy
67. Adaptive Optics Engineering Handbook, edited by Robert K. Tyson
68. Entropy and Information Optics, Francis T. S. Yu
69. Computational Methods for Electromagnetic and Optical Systems, John M. Jarem and Partha P. Banetjee
70. Laser Beam Shaping: Theory and Techniques, edited by Fred M. Dickey and Scott C. Holswade
71. Rare-Earth-Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, edited by Michel J. F. Digonnet
72. Lens Design: Third Edition, Revised and Expanded, Milton Laikin
73. Handbook of Optical Engineering, edited by Daniel Malacara and Brian J. Thompson
74. Handbook of Imaging Materials, edited by Arthur S. Diamond and David S. Weiss
75. Handbook of Image Quality: Characterization and Prediction, Brian W. Keelan
76. Fiber Optic Sensors, edited by Francis T. S. Yu and Shizhuo Yin
77. Optical Switching/Networking and Computing for Multimedia Systems, edited by Mohsen Guizani and Abdella Battou
78. Image Recognition and Classification: Algorithms, Systems, and Applications, edited by Bahram Javidi
79. Practical Design and Production of Optical Thin Films: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, Ronald R. Willey Ultrafast Lasers: Technology and Applications, edited by Martin E. Fermann, Almantas Galvanauskas, and Gregg Sucha
81. Light Propagation in Periodic Media: Differential Theory and Design, Michel Neviere and Evgeny Popov
82. Handbook of Nonlinear Optics: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, Richard L. Sutherland
83. Polarized Light: Second Edition, Revised and Expanded, Dennis Goldstein
84. Optical Remote Sensing: Science and Technology, Walter G. Egan
85. Handbook of Optical Design: Second Edition, Daniel Malacara and Zacarias Malacara